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Your search for research returned 173 results.
County Income Patterns

This research brief presents five maps that display recent demographic and income trends at the county level. The release highlights population change, personal income growth and per capita figures for all counties of the Commonwealth.

Tags: brief, county, incomes, research

Economic Impact of Federal Stimulus

This research brief examines the impact of certain federal stimulus programs enacted in response to the COVID-19 pandemic on Pennsylvania residents and the economy. It estimates the total amount of federal stimulus provided directly to individuals by income group and considers the impact on employment, output, and whether the infusion of federal monies into the state economy is conducive to raising the state minimum wage.

Tags: brief, economic, federal, impact, research, stimulus

Pennsylvania Economic Development Incentives

This research brief presents data on Pennsylvania economic development incentives for fiscal years (FY) 2014-15 through FY 2019-20. The tables provide annual detail on tax credit utilization or awards, state spending or grants, job training programs and state loan programs. The brief also highlights recent changes to incentive programs spending or utilization.

Tags: brief, credits, development, economic, incentives, research, tax

County Income Patterns

This research brief presents four maps that illustrate recent demographic and income trends at the county level. The release highlights population change, personal income growth and per capita figures for all counties of the Commonwealth.

Tags: brief, county, incomes, research

Pennsylvania Electricity Update

The IFO released a research brief that provides a general overview of the Pennsylvania electricity market. Recent EIA data show that Pennsylvania remains the largest net exporter of electricity in the country.

09/09/2021

Property Tax Burden by County

This research brief uses (1) income data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis and the Internal Revenue Service and (2) property tax data from the Pennsylvania Department of Education and Department of Community and Economic Development to estimate and rank county-level property tax burdens across the state for 2019. Note: This research brief was originally posted on 8/17/2021. It has been updated to include a map that displays school district property tax burdens by county. 

08/25/2021

County Income Patterns

This research brief presents five maps that display recent demographic and income trends at the county level. The release highlights population change, personal income growth and per capita figures for all counties of the Commonwealth.

08/10/2021

Economic Impact of Federal Stimulus

This research brief examines the impact of certain federal stimulus programs enacted in response to the COVID-19 pandemic on Pennsylvania residents and the economy. It estimates the total amount of federal stimulus provided directly to individuals by income group and considers the impact on employment, output, and whether the infusion of federal monies into the state economy is conducive to raising the state minimum wage.

05/10/2021

PPP Loans to Pennsylvania Businesses

This research brief examines the impact of the PPP on Pennsylvania businesses by considering the number and type of firms affected, the potential employment impact and possible tax implications.

12/08/2020

Pennsylvania Economic Development Incentives

This research brief presents data on Pennsylvania economic development incentives for fiscal years (FY) 2014-15 through FY 2019-20. The tables provide annual detail on tax credit utilization or awards, state spending or grants, job training programs and state loan programs. The brief also highlights recent changes to incentive programs spending or utilization.

10/15/2020

Impact of the TCJA on Pennsylvania Taxpayers

This research brief uses newly released IRS tax data to examine how the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 impacted Pennsylvania federal income taxpayers. The analysis finds that tax law changes likely reduced federal income taxes by roughly $8.5 to $9.0 billion.  This research brief was originally posted on October 2 but was updated and reposted on October 13 so that refundable tax credits and certain miscellaneous taxes (AMT and net investment tax) are reflected in average tax rate and estimated tax cut computations. Previously, those amounts were itemized separately.  

10/13/2020

County Income Patterns

This research brief presents four maps that illustrate recent demographic and income trends at the county level. The release highlights population change, personal income growth and per capita figures for all counties of the Commonwealth.

06/10/2020

Property Tax by County and Income

This research brief uses data from the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey to provide Pennsylvania property tax data for 2018 by county, household income and homeowner age.

04/07/2020

OBMD, MTBI, R&D, and KIZ Tax Credit Reviews and PBB Overview for DCED, DOH and DHS

IFO presentation of Organ and Bone Marrow Donation, Mobile Telecommunications Broadband Investment, research and Development and Keystone Innovation Zone Tax Credit Reviews and Performance-Based Budget highlights for the Department of Community and Economic Development, Department of Health and Department of Human Services.  

01/22/2020

research and Development Tax Credit

Act 48 of 2017 requires the Independent Fiscal Office (IFO) to review all state tax credits over a five-year period. For the second year, the IFO reviewed the research and Development, Keystone Innovation Zone, Mobile Telecommunications Broadband Investment and Organ and Bone Marrow Donation Tax Credits. Click on the link to access the research and Development Tax Credit Report.

01/21/2020

Keystone Innovation Zone Tax Credit

Act 48 of 2017 requires the Independent Fiscal Office (IFO) to review all state tax credits over a five-year period. For the second year, the IFO reviewed the research and Development, Keystone Innovation Zone, Mobile Telecommunications Broadband Investment and Organ and Bone Marrow Donation Tax Credits. Click on the link to access the Keystone Innovation Zone Tax Credit Report.

01/21/2020

Mobile Telecommunications Broadband Investment Tax Credit

Act 48 of 2017 requires the Independent Fiscal Office (IFO) to review all state tax credits over a five-year period. For the second year, the IFO reviewed the research and Development, Keystone Innovation Zone, Mobile Telecommunications Broadband Investment and Organ and Bone Marrow Donation Tax Credits. Click on the link to access the Mobile Telecommunications Broadband Investment Tax Credit Report.

01/16/2020

Organ and Bone Marrow Donation Tax Credit

Act 48 of 2017 requires the Independent Fiscal Office (IFO) to review all state tax credits over a five-year period. For the second year, the IFO reviewed the research and Development, Keystone Innovation Zone, Mobile Telecommunications Broadband Investment and Organ and Bone Marrow Donation Tax Credits. Click on the link to access the Organ and Bone Marrow Donation Tax Credit Report.

01/16/2020

2019 Impact Fee Estimate

This research brief uses recent data published by the Department of Environmental Protection to project CY 2019 Impact Fee collections. Collections are estimated to be $198.2 million, a decrease of $53.6 million from the prior year.

01/09/2020

Redevelopment Assistance Capital Program

In response to a legislative request, the Independent Fiscal Office published a research brief related to the Redevelopment Assistance Capital Program. The brief provides historical data of the program and examines the potential impact of proposed legislation. This research brief was updated November 12, 2019 to take Act 43 of 2019 into consideration.

10/31/2019

Natural Gas Royalties Increase in 2017

This research brief uses state personal income tax data to estimate natural gas royalties paid to landowners in 2017. The data suggest that royalties paid increased significantly from the prior year due to increased production and higher prices.

09/20/2019

Property Tax Rent Rebate Program

In response to a legislative request, the IFO transmitted a letter that analyzes a proposed expansion of the Property Tax Rent Rebate Program. Note: This analysis was originally posted on May 15, 2019. The analysis was reposted on September 12, 2019 to reflect technical adjustments made by the IFO based on research cited in the footnotes of the updated analysis.  

09/12/2019

County Income Patterns

This research brief presents four maps that illustrate recent demographic and income trends at the county level. The release highlights population change, personal income growth and per capita figures for all counties of the Commonwealth.

08/30/2019

2018 IMPACT FEE ESTIMATE - JANUARY 2019

This research brief uses recent data published by the Department of Environmental Protection to project CY 2018 Impact Fee collections.

01/24/2019

2017 Impact Fee Estimate - January 2018

This research brief uses recent data published by the Department of Environmental Protection to project CY 2017 Impact Fee collections in Pennsylvania. Revised for technical factor on 2/22/2018.

01/19/2018

School District Property Tax Forecast

This research brief contains the IFO's forecasted school district property tax collections from FY 2016-17 through FY 2022-23. The brief also contains estimates of school district property tax collections that can be attributed to homestead property.  Total school property tax collections for FY 2016-17 ($14.0 billion) and FY 2017-18 ($14.4 billion) are estimated using millage rates published by the Pennsylvania Department of Education and property tax assessment data. For FY 2018-19 through FY 2022-23, collections are projected based on the statutory, economic and structural factors that affect growth rates of property taxes. During that period, total school property tax collections are projected to grow by an average annual rate of 3.3 percent, reaching $17.0 billion by FY 2022-23.

01/18/2018

County Homestead Detail

As an extension of its recent research relating to property taxes, the IFO has released additional data regarding homestead property. Estimates for the numbers and assessed values of homestead properties by county are based, in large part, on the results of a survey of county assessment offices. The County Commissioners Association of Pennsylvania provided valuable assistance by coordinating the survey. Data for Philadelphia has been adjusted based on new information provided by the Philadelphia Department of Revenue.

12/06/2017

Impact Fee Update and 2017 Outlook

This research brief examines 2016 impact fee collections and natural gas production in Pennsylvania. It also provides an outlook for 2017. 

07/04/2017

Pennsylvania Gaming Trends

This research brief contains current and historical trends for casino gaming, pari-mutuel gaming and the lottery. The brief also presents casino gaming revenues, tax rates and effective tax rates for adjacent states, which likely influence trends for Pennsylvania. The final section displays how revenues from the three types of gaming were used in the state budget for the most recent year of actual data, FY 2015-16.

02/13/2017

2016 Impact Fee Estimate - January 2017

This research brief uses recent data published by the Department of Environmental Protection to project CY 2016 Impact Fee collections in Pennsylvania.

01/02/2017

Impact Fee Update and 2016 Outlook

This research brief examines 2015 impact fee collections and natural gas production in Pennsylvania. It also provides an outlook for 2016. 

07/14/2016

Economic Development Incentives

This research brief compiles data on economic development incentives into a single document to facilitate a tabulation of Commonwealth spending on these incentives. The report displays this information for the two most recently completed fiscal years (FY): 2013-14 and 2014-15.  

03/25/2016

Impact Fee Update - February 2016

This research brief uses recent data published by the Department of Environmental Protection to project CY 2015 Impact Fee collections in Pennsylvania. 

02/29/2016

Raising the Minimum Wage in Pennsylvania

This research brief presents an analysis of the potential impact of the proposal to 1) raise the Pennsylvania state minimum wage from $7.25 to $10.10 and 2) automatically adjust future minimum wage levels to offset inflation.

11/30/2015

Impact Fee Update and 2015 Outlook

This research brief analyzes calendar year (CY) 2014 impact fee revenues (remitted April 2015) reported by the Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission (PUC) and potential scenarios for CY 2015. The research brief also translates the impact fee into an annual average effective tax rate (ETR) based on natural gas price and production data. The ETR is a metric that quantifies the implicit tax burden imposed by the impact fee in a given year.

06/25/2015

Pennsylvania Gaming Trends

This research brief gives a historical overview of gaming trends and revenues in Pennsylvania. This includes the role of gaming in the state economy as well as comparisons to other states. 

02/28/2015

Impact Fee Update - February 2015

This research brief estimates the calendar year 2014 impact fee revenues (to be remitted in April 2015) using data from the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) and the Public Utility Commission (PUC). The research brief also translates the impact fee into an annual average effective tax rate (ETR) based on recent natural gas price and production data. The ETR is a metric that quantifies the implicit tax burden imposed by the impact fee in a given year.

02/27/2015

State Economic Comparison

This research brief uses Real GDP, Personal Income and Payroll Employment to compare economic performance in Pennsylvania to four adjacent states and the U.S. over the past decade.

09/30/2014

TC_2020_Research and Development Tax Credit.pdf

tax credits over a five- year period. For the second year, the IFO reviewed four tax credits: the Research and Development, Key- stone Innovation Zone, Mobile Telecommunications Broadband Investment and Organ and Bone Marrow Donation Tax Credits. The act requires the reports available to the public on the IFO website. This report contains the tax credit review for the Research and Development Tax Credit (RDTC). The IFO reviewed numerous studies on state research and development incentives, held discussions with various stakeholders and

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Single-Use Plastics Report-2020_06.pdf

the IFO in May 2019. Primary responsibilities include forecasting corporate net income tax revenues, business- and economic-related research, performance-based budgeting initiatives and various other projects including the Special Education Funding Formula survey. Mathieu Taylor, Fiscal Analyst II Mr. Taylor implications not only for consumers, but also retailers, manufacturers and state and local governments. For 2018, Freedonia Custom Research, an independent international market research firm, estimated that the U.S. consumed 70 billion single-use plastic bags. 5 Data from the

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2007_divestment_complete_report.pdf

2007 – Appendix XIII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 Pennsylvania Employment Impact – Appendix XIV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415 “Should Public Plans Engage in Social Investing?” Center for Retirement Research at Boston College August 2007, Number 7-12, by Alicia H. Munnell -vi- Table of Contents (Cont’d) Part VI reviewing and relying on publicly available information regarding companies having business operations in Sudan, including information provided by nonprofit organizations, research firms, international organizations, and government entities; contacting asset managers that invest in companies having business operations in Sudan; and contacting

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Revenue-Proposal-Analysis-2019-03.pdf

potential employment effects, income effects and implications for General Fund revenues and expenditures. Due to lack of current research, the section provides only general comments on the proposed increase in the min- imum wage from $12.00 to $15.00 per to shift profits to low or no tax states. In 2013, the IFO issued a report which used research from states that implemented combined reporting during the previous decade to examine the revenue impact from that filing method. 2 The report

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TC_2020_Keystone_Innovation_Zone_Tax_Credit.pdf

tax credits over a five- year period. For the second year, the IFO reviewed four tax credits: the Research and Development, Key- stone Innovation Zone, Mobile Telecommunications Broadband Investment and Organ and Bone Marrow Donation Tax Credits. The act requires the held discussions with various stakeholders and met with agency staff who administer the tax credit. Based on that research, the IFO submits this report to fulfill the requirements contained in Act 48. The KIZ Tax Credit is unique to Pennsylvania, and

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2013_special_report_funding_and_reforming_public_employee_retirement_systems.pdf

of Return by Interest Assumption Range. . . . . 23 Appendices•Appendix 1 – Testimonies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33Testimony of Stephen Herzenberg, Ph.D., Executive Director, Keystone Research Center. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34Testimony of Brian K. Jensen, Ph.D., Executive Director, PA Economy League of Greater Pittsburgh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41Testimony of Richard C Legislation Database (made possible by the Pew Center on the States) via the following link:http://www.ncsl.org/issues-research/labor/pension-legislation-database.aspx A report entitled Laura and John Arnold Foundation Policy Perspective, Pension Litigation Summary, Stuart Buck

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PBB_2020_DOH_REPORT_Final_Update.pdf

Activity 8: Women, Infants and Children (WIC) ................................................................... 29 Activity 9: Maternal and Child Health .................................................................................. 31 Activity 10: Health Research .............................................................................................. 33 Activity 11: Public Health & Emergency Medical Services ...................................................... 35 Activity 12: State Laboratory .............................................................................................. 37 Activity 13: Administration ................................................................................................. 39 Appendix .......................................................................................................................... 41 Performance-Based for some portion of their higher education budget. See “Performance-Based Budgeting in the States,” NCSL Fiscal Policy Research, Vol. 24, No. 35 (September 2016). Background and Methodology | Page 2 The performance-based budget in this report differs from a traditional

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TC_2020_Mobile Telecommunications Broadband Investment Tax Credit.pdf

tax credits over a five- year period. For the second year, the IFO reviewed four tax credits: the Research and Development, Key- stone Innovation Zone, Mobile Telecommunications Broadband Investment and Organ and Bone Marrow Donation Tax Credits. The act requires the held discussions with various stakeholders and met with agency staff who administer the tax credit. Based on that research, the IFO submits this report to fulfill the requirements contained in Act 48. Currently, twenty-four states (includes Pennsylvania) offer one or

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Independent Fiscal Office

the past nine budget cycles. ... (Full Report) Pennsylvania Electricity Update News Stand & Other September 09, 2021 The IFO released a research brief that provides a general overview of the Pennsylvania electricity market. Recent EIA data show that Pennsylvania remains the largest taxes to the House Majority Policy Committee. ... (Full Report) Property Tax Burden by County Property Tax August 25, 2021 This research brief uses (1) income data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis and the Internal Revenue Service and (2) property tax

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Revenue-Proposal-Analysis-2020-04.pdf

based on audit results. Combined Reporting Base Expansion Analysis In 2013, the IFO issued a report which used research from states that implemented combined reporting during the previous decade to examine the revenue impact from the enactment of that filing method industry or sector (e.g., fast food). Neumark (2015) 21 Based on a review of existing studies, this research note from the Federal Reserve Board of San Francisco finds that “the overall body of recent evidence suggests that the most credible

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RB-2016-02.pdf

Independent Fiscal Of Ðice March 2016 1 Research Brief 2016‐2 March 2016 Economic Development Incentives Economic development incentives attempt to stimulate economic growth through various direct (e spending on economic development incentives. In Pennsylvania, the information is dispersed across multiple sources and is not readily available. This research brief compiles data on economic development incentives into a single document to facilitate a tabulation of Commonwealth spending on these

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RB_2021_01_Economic_Impact_of_Federal_Stimulus.pdf

The Independent Fiscal Office (IFO) publishes this research brief to examine the impact of certain federal stimulus programs enacted in response to the COVID-19 pandemic on Pennsylvania adult), the extension of UC programs (reduced extra weekly benefit from $600 to $300) and an increase to 1 This research brief does not consider provisions that provide support to state and local governments, hospitals, colleges, small businesses and non-profits

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PBB_2020_DCED_REPORT.pdf

for some portion of their higher education budget. See “Performance-Based Budgeting in the States,” NCSL Fiscal Policy Research, Vol. 24, No. 35 (September 2016). Background and Methodology | Page 2 The performance-based budget in this report differs from a traditional skilled trades from The Skilled Trades in New York State report released by the New York Division of Research (June 2016). Occupations include, but are not limited to, carpenters, electricians and plumbers. Calculations by the IFO. Manufacturing Sector Jobs Skilled Trades

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RB-2015-04.pdf

Independent Fiscal Of Ðice November 2015 1 Research Brief 2015‐4 November 2015 Raising the Minimum Wage in Pennsylvania The FY 2015‐16 Executive Budget includes a proposal wage from $7.25 to $10.10 and (2) automatically adjusts future minimum wage levels to offset in Ðlation. This research brief presents an analysis of the potential impact of that proposal. The analysis uses data from the Current Population Survey

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TC_2021_Resource_Enhancement_and_Protection.pdf

water pollution, held discussions with various stakeholders and met with agency staff who administer the tax credit. Based on that research, the IFO submits this report to fulfill the requirements contained in Act 48. Pennsylvania is one of two states in to reduce personal income tax liabilities (79.3 percent). This implies that the REAP Tax Credit benefits small businesses. ▪ Available research generally concludes that incentives (e.g., tax credits and grants) combined with regulatory compliance efforts are the most effective way

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TC_2021_Keystone_Special_Development_Zones.pdf

the House and Senate Finance Committees and to make the reports available to the public on the IFO website. This research brief contains the tax credit review for the Keystone Special Development Zone (KSDZ) Tax Credit. The IFO met with agency staff who administer the tax credit and reviewed relevant research related to economic incentives for brownfield remediation and redevelopment. Based on that research, the IFO submits this report to fulfill

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TC_2019_Historic_Preservation_Tax_Credit_Report.pdf

held discussions with various stakeholders and met with agency staff that administer the tax credit. Based on that research, the IFO submits this report to fulfill the requirements contained in Act 48. The HPTC differs from other tax credits because short- Historic Preservation and Cultural and Entertainment District Tax Credit: Tax Credits Evaluation Study,” Iowa Department of Revenue, Tax Research and Program Analysis Section (December 2014), p. 10. 7 Acts 1974, No. 273, Section 1. Amended by Acts 1975, No. 592, Section

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CNIT-Rate-Cut-2018-04.pdf

will have different levels of profitability. More profitable industries will pay more tax at a given tax rate. Finally, most researchers believe that capital owners (i.e., shareholders) bear the majority of the burden of the state CNIT, and most corporate interest or rent. Those same groups will benefit from any reduction in the tax rate. In the near‐term, most research finds that capital owners will benefit from tax rate reductions (or bear the burden of a tax increase). However, as

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TC_2019_New_Jobs_Tax_Credit_Report.pdf

held discussions with various stakeholders and met with agency staff who administer the tax credit. Based on that research, the IFO submits this report to fulfill the requirements contained in Act 48. Currently, 25 states offer some version of a broad- fill the position(s).  The net economic impact of the credit is too small to model formally. Research finds that roughly 95 percent of the jobs created under the program would also be created in absence of the credit. Using

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Revenue_Proposal_Analysis_2021_04.pdf

Corporate Net Income Tax | Page 5 Combined Reporting Base Expansion Analysis In 2013, the IFO issued a report which used research from states that implemented combined reporting during the previous decade to examine the revenue impact from the enactment of that to capital income that comprises their income. The authors emphasize that mo- bility responses may appear significantly large in other research because top marginal tax rates pertain to only a specific group of taxpayers, and that other outside factors may play

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Revenue-Proposal-Analysis-2018-04.pdf

Income Effects for Affected Workers ........................................................................ 24 Potential Implications for General Fund Revenues .................................................. 26 A Final Note: The Latest Research on Minimum Wage ............................................ 29 - This page intentionally left blank. - Introduction | Page 1 Introduction This report provides revenue estimates for the tax proposals modest positive impact on firms’ location decisions. Combined Reporting The estimate references an IFO report (2013) which used research from states that have implemented combined reporting during the previous decade to examine the revenue impact from that filing method. 2 The

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TC_2021_Video_Game_Production.pdf

production incentives, held discussions with various stakeholders and met with agency staff who administer the tax credit. Based on that research, the IFO submits this report to fulfill the requirements contained in Act 48. Currently, nineteen states (includes Pennsylvania) offer one states (i.e., most states combine the incentive with the much larger film tax credit), there is a dearth of research that examines the specific impact of the video game industry on state and local economies. The text that follows provides

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TC_2019_Film_Production_Tax_Credit_Report.pdf

held discussions with various stakeholders and met with agency staff who administer the tax credit. Based on that research, the IFO submits this report to fulfill the requirements contained in Act 48. For 2018, 32 states used an FPTC to incentivize who are employed by a firm that is located outside the state. 12 Georgia Tax Expenditure Report, Fiscal Research Center, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies at Georgia State University, various years. 2007 2012 2017 Number AAGR Number AAGR California 126

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PBB_2019_PCCD_Report.pdf

the Pew Charitable Trusts Results First model. The Justice Reinvestment Initiative | Page 3 The Justice Reinvestment Initiative Extensive research demonstrates that evidence-based policies and programs have positive effects on out- comes and are integral to the performance-based budgeting framework on Crime and Delinquency (PCCD) initiates, validates, and financially sup- ports justice-related programs. The Commission focuses on research, policy, planning, training, evidence- based programming, technology, outreach and support services. In FY 2017-18, PCCD awarded over $37.1 million in

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PBB-Board Hearing Jan 23 2020.pptx

Tax Credit Reviews Organ and Bone Marrow Donation Mobile Telecom Broadband Research and Development Keystone Innovation Zones DCED PBB Highlights Presentation to the Performance-Based Budget Board January 23, 2020 2/27 earnings | number of jobs ▪ Not possible to estimate certain spillover effects and synergies ▪ Key : incentivization parameter | use consensus of existing research January 23, 2020 3 Organ and Bone Marrow Donation Tax credit for paid leave due to a living donation by

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IFO_Hearing_Packet_Feb2018.pdf

analyses and issuing actuarial notes for legislation proposing changes to public employee pension or retirement plans and special reports and research briefs on various budget and economic topics. This submission lists recent reports published by the IFO during the past year Tax Data (2015) 17 Natural Gas Trends Production, Price and Impact Fee Trends 18 Historical Spot Prices 19 Impact Fee Research Brief 20 PSERS and SERS Trends Employer Contribution Rates 22 Decomposition of Employer Rates 23 Change in Employer Contributions 24

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Senate Appropriations Response Letter 3-6-2020.pdf

on how the proceeds were spent. Data for the most recent refinances are not yet available. However, a Freddie Mac Research Note from March 2019 analyzed the Federal Housing Finance Agency National Survey of Mortgage Originations for loans originated from January 100 because the borrower may have used the proceeds for more than one purpose. 1 See http://www.freddiemac.com/research/insight/20190313_quarterly_refinance_report.page. March 6, 2020 Page 2 Senator Haywood asked which Pennsylvania income groups have benefited from the recent

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TC_2021_Entertainment_Economic_Enhancement_Program.pdf

entertainment industry, held discussions with various stakeholders and met with agency staff who administer the tax credit. Based on that research, the IFO submits this report to fulfill the requirements contained in Act 48. Currently four states (including Pennsylvania) offer a the relative size of the industry and the small number of incentives offered by states, there is a dearth of research that examines the impact of live concerts on state and local economies. The text that follows provides a summary of

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NGIFE-2015.pdf

Independent Fiscal Of Ðice February 2016 1 Research Brief 2016‐1 February 2016 Impact Fee Update In June 2015, the Independent Fiscal Of Ðice (IFO) issued Research Brief 2015‐3, which reported unconventional gas well impact fee collections for calendar year (CY) 2014 along with three potential

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Budget_Hearing_Background_Feb2016.pdf

S. Energy Information Administration and Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. New Pipeline Capacity (15) Independent Fiscal Of Ðice February 2016 1 Research Brief 2016‐1 February 2016 Impact Fee Update In June 2015, the Independent Fiscal Of Ðice (IFO) issued Research Brief 2015‐3, which reported unconventional gas well impact fee collections for calendar year (CY) 2014 along with three potential

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TC_2021_Neighborhood_Assistance_Program.pdf

neighborhood assistance incentives, held discussions with stakeholders and met with agency staff who administer the tax credit. Based on that research, the IFO submits this report to fulfill the requirements contained in Act 48. Currently, 18 states offer programs similar to Enhance the safety and quality of life for residents of distressed communities. 5 Eligible companies include agricultural, industrial, manufacturing or research and development enterprises. 6 Neighborhood organizations must be registered as a 501(c)(3) to qualify. Business contributions may include

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TC_2020_Organ and Bone Marrow Donation Tax Credit.pdf

tax credits over a five- year period. For the second year, the IFO reviewed four tax credits: The Research and Development, Keystone Innovation Zone, Mobile Telecommunications Broadband Investment and Organ and Bone Mar- row Donation Tax Credits. The act requires the held discussions with various stakeholders and met with agency staff who administer the tax credit. Based on that research, the IFO submits this report to fulfill the requirements contained in Act 48. The OBMD differs from most tax credits because program

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PA_Turnpike_Toll_Projections_May_31_2013.pdf

The report discloses all assumptions used to project toll revenues on the Pennsylvania Turnpike, as well as data sources and research used by the IFO. The numbers contained in this report are projections that may change due to policy decisions and report contains five sections. Section II presents the economic and demographic forecasts used for this analysis. Section III discusses previous research on toll road usage. Section IV describes the methodology used by this analysis. Section V presents projections of toll revenues

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Economic_and_Revenue_Update_2020.pdf

and issuing actuarial notes for legislation that proposes changes to public employee pension or retirement plans and special reports and research briefs on various budget and economic topics. This submission lists recent reports published by the IFO during the past year 2,343,000 420,103 128,500 -160,760 Available Parking Other Subtotal Contracted Actuarial Analysis Appropriated / Proposed Publications and Research Materials Employer Taxes Subtotal Operating Office Operations and Supplies Computers, Networks and Software Data Acquisition and Analysis Personnel Salaries Benefits

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Response_Letter_9_23_2019.pdf

does not tax Social Security income and one of 3 states that does not tax private pensions. The IFO surveyed research by academics and national policy organizations and could not locate any credible findings that would suggest a significant impact on senior homeowners such as those proposed by the request. Some senior homeowners could be swayed by the proposed change, but research suggests that the impact would likely be modest. 2 It is unclear how recent changes in federal tax law that

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RB_2020_12_PPP_Loans_to_PA_Businesses.pdf

3 Approved loans could not exceed $10 million and were disbursed by private lenders from April through August 2020. This research brief examines the impact of the PPP on Pennsylvania businesses by considering the number and type of firms affected, the act/assistance-for-small-businesses/sba-paycheck-protection- program-loan-level-data. PPP Loans to PA Businesses Independent Fiscal Office | Research Brief | December 2020 Independent Fiscal Office Page 2 Paycheck Protection Program Loans to PA Businesses Number Share Amount Share of

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RB-2020-COVID-19 Local Revenue Impact.pdf

In response to a request from the General Assembly, this research brief examines how the COVID-19 pandemic and mandated business closures could impact local earned income taxes (EIT), property taxes districts is believed to be nominal and omitted from this analysis. COVID-19 Impact on Local Revenues Independent Fiscal Office | Research Brief | July 2020 Independent Fiscal Office Page 2  For 2020 Q2, it is known that the PIT withholding growth

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RB-2020-10-Impact_of_TCJA_on_PA_Taxpayers.pdf

released state level tax data that reveal the impact that tax law changes had on Pennsylvania federal income taxpayers. This research brief provides a general analysis of those impacts and how tax law changes affected federal income tax paid for tax Pennsylvania federal income taxpayers will depend on income level, family size, filing status, homeownership status and various other factors. This research brief provides a high-level review of how tax law changes affect reported Total Income, Taxable Income, various deductions and

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RB-10-2020-Economic_Development_Incentives.pdf

This research brief presents Pennsylvania economic development incentives for fiscal years (FY) 2014-15 through FY 2019-20. The brief divides economic Development Zones tax credits. Reports will be available to the public in January 2021. Economic Development Incentives Independent Fiscal Office | Research Brief | October 2020 Independent Fiscal Office Page 2 State Spending or Grants In FY 2019-20, $481.1 million was

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RB 2019 RACP.pdf

In response to a legislative request, the Independent Fiscal Office (IFO) publishes this research brief which examines the potential impact of House Bill 880. The bill lowers the statutory debt limit for Redevelopment Assistance Budget Office and can be found at the following link: RACP Guidelines Page. Redevelopment Assistance Capital Program Independent Fiscal Office | Research Brief | October 2019 Independent Fiscal Office Page 2 All projects must also follow requirements under the competitive bidding process, Pennsylvania

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RB 2019 Natural Gas Royalties.pdf

could flow to firms that report royalty income as net profits (line 4) on the personal income tax return. 1 Research finds that the average royalty rate in Pennsylvania is 13.5 percent. See Brown et al. “Capturing Rents from Natural may receive prior to the drilling and extraction of natural gas. Natural Gas Royalties Increase in 2017 Independent Fiscal Office | Research Brief | January 2020 Independent Fiscal Office Page 2 The potential magnitude of the understatement cannot be estimated based on available

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PBB-Overview-2019-01-22.pdf

PBB Timeline in First Year Jan 2018 PBB review schedule set by Budget Office and IFO Mar to Jul general research, design data template, contact other states (NM, WA, MN), update to PBB Board staff Mid August first meeting with each agency, transmit data template Sept to Nov multiple follow up meetings, meet with legislative staff agency template submissions, research benchmarks with other states, update to PBB Board Dec final template submissions, begin report drafts Jan 2019 provide drafts to

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Kling_Presentation.pdf

Technical Information 7 CBO Explaining Analytical Methods: CBO’s Forecasting Models That working paper on CBO’s economic forecast showed researchers how the agency’s various models interact. 8 CBO To let researchers replicate its results, CBO posts the computer code for some analyses. For example:  Code for CBO’s estimates of

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IFO_Hearing_Packet_Feb2019.pdf

analyses and issues actuarial notes for legislation proposing changes to public employee pension or retirement plans and special reports and research briefs on various budget and economic topics. This submission lists reports published by the IFO during the past year, and 2,293,000 548,000 372,100 -51,500 Available Parking Other Subtotal Contracted Actuarial Analysis Appropriated / Proposed Publications and Research Materials Employer Taxes Subtotal Operating Office Operations and Supplies Computers, Networks and Software Data Acquisition and Analysis Personnel Salaries Benefits

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IFO - Economic and Budget Outlook - January 2012.pdf

US economy had lurched into the downturn now called the Great Recession. In September 2009, the National Bureau of Economic Research declared that the recession had officially ended in June 2009. The recession spanned nineteen months, making it the longest downturn received $9.5 billion in ARRA contracts, grants and loans. Most contracts, grants and loans were awarded for education, transportation, research and other infrastructure purposes. 11 The modest real growth of national and state economies has had limited impact on labor

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County-Prop-Tax-RB.pdf

This research brief utilizes data from the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey (ACS) 1-year Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS for elderly homeowners from 4.3 percent to 4.2 percent. Property Tax by County and Income Independent Fiscal Office | Research Brief | April 2020 Independent Fiscal Office Page 2 County Households Burden Avg. Tax Households Burden Avg. Tax Adams-Franklin 74

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About IFO

state budgeting and tax policy and administration in the commonwealth, including executive deputy secretary for the Office of the Budget, research director for the Department of Revenue, and unemployment compensation tax services director for the Department of Labor and Industry. Ms University. Stacey Knavel Principal Revenue Analyst Formerly employed as a manager in the Pennsylvania Department of Revenue's Bureau of Research, where she coordinated the revenue forecasting process for both the General Fund and the Motor License Fund. Ms. Knavel also

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The Payroll Tax Cut Extension FINAL.pdf

website. Rather, analysis posted on this website is intended to inform readers of potential outcomes based on available data and research. The IFO welcomes any comments or suggestions. Comments and suggestions can be submitted on the “Contact IFO” page. INTRODUCTION Throughout by $4.1 billion. (See table.) An extension of the payroll tax cut would also impact General Fund tax revenues. Research suggests that recipients might consume anywhere from 30 to 90 percent of a temporary tax cut or rebate, while the

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Revenue-Estimate-2020-05.pdf

made directly to those entities by the federal government. This includes funds for testing, preparedness and response, and research related to the COVID-19 virus. Employment and Wages The most immediate and quantifiable impact of business closures due to mitigation efforts payments, and more importantly, the extra weekly $600 Federal Pandemic UC (FPUC) payments. A recent article by Pew Research also found significant gains in scratch off sales in many states, but the gains occurred in April. 13 The article noted that

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RB_2021_02 County Income Patterns.pdf

Introduction This research brief presents five maps that illustrate recent demographic and income trends at the county level. The brief starts with demographic the northern and northwestern regions of the state compared to the southeast and central. County Income Patterns Independent Fiscal Office | Research Brief | August 2021 Independent Fiscal Office Page 2 Personal Income Growth From 2016 to 2019, nearly all Pennsylvania counties (except

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RB-2020-03 County Income Patterns.pdf

Introduction This research brief presents four maps that illustrate recent demographic and income trends at the county level. The brief starts with demographic the state generally recorded contractions, the south central and eastern regions recorded moderate gains. County Income Patterns Independent Fiscal Office | Research Brief | June 2020 Independent Fiscal Office Page 2 Personal Income Growth From 2016 to 2018, all Pennsylvania counties recorded personal

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RB-2019-01.pdf

Independent Fiscal Office 1 Research Brief 2019-1 January 2019 2018 Impact Fee Estimate Pennsylvania imposes an annual impact fee on unconventional (i.e., shale) natural gas wells that were drilled or operating in the previous calendar year. This research brief uses recent data published by the Department of Environmental Protection to estimate collections for calendar year (CY) 2018, which

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RB-2018-01.pdf

Independent Fiscal Of Ðice January 2018 1 Research Brief 2018‐1 January 2018 School District Property Tax Forecast The Independent Fiscal Office (IFO) has issued periodic school property the statutory, economic and structural factors that affect growth rates of school property taxes. This report also incorporates recent IFO research regarding the property taxes paid by homesteads and displays estimates through FY 2022-23. Table 1 provides a summary of

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RB 2019 County Income Patterns.pdf

Introduction This research brief presents four maps that illustrate recent demographic and income trends at the county level. The brief starts with demographic of the state generally recorded contractions, the southern and southeast regions recorded moderate gains. County Income Patterns Independent Fiscal Office | Research Brief | August 2019 Independent Fiscal Office Page 2 Personal Income Growth From 2015 to 2017, nearly all Pennsylvania counties recorded

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PBB_2019_Criminal_Justice_Report.pdf

the Pew Charitable Trusts Results First model. The Justice Reivenstment Initiative | Page 3 The Justice Reinvestment Initiative Extensive research demonstrates that evidence-based policies and programs have positive effects on out- comes and are integral to the performance-based budgeting framework used to benchmark the programs and practices of different jurisdic- tions, the data can highlight areas warranting additional research and analysis. To that end, the focus should be on the relative trends or growth rates between states, because the data do

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PBB-Board-Hearing-Jan-22-2020.pdf

and U.S.? There are many things that PBB cannot do  Cost-benefit analysis (no longer supported by Pew Research)  Provide a direct method to compare similar programs  Identify and quantify waste | best used to track general trends more outcome metrics  Limit number of activities (set dollar or percentage threshold)  Use other methods: statistical analysis and research/best practices January 22, 2020 3 Some Issues Raised by Agencies Outcomes: we have very limited control over them 

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Official-Revenue-Estimate-2020-06.pdf

made directly to those entities by the federal government. This includes funds for testing, preparedness and response, and research related to the COVID-19 virus. Employment and Wages The most immediate and quantifiable impact of business closures due to mitigation efforts payments, and more importantly, the extra weekly $600 Federal Pandemic UC (FPUC) payments. A recent article by Pew Research also found significant gains in scratch off sales in many states, but the gains occurred in April. 12 The article noted that

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NGIFE-2018.pdf

Independent Fiscal Office 1 Research Brief 2018-2 January 2018 2017 Impact Fee Estimate Pennsylvania imposes an annual impact fee on unconventional (i.e., shale) natural gas wells that were drilled or operating in the previous calendar year. This research brief uses recent data published by the Department of Environmental Protection to estimate collections for calendar year (CY) 2017, which

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NGIFE-2016.pdf

Independent Fiscal Office January 2017 1 Research Brief 2017-1 January 2017 2016 Impact Fee Estimate Pennsylvania imposes an annual impact fee on unconventional (i.e., shale) natural gas wells that were drilled or operating in the previous calendar year. This research brief uses recent data published by the Department of Environmental Protection to estimate collections for calendar year (CY) 2016, which

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Impact-Fee-Update-2017-Outlook-2017-07.pdf

Independent Fiscal Of Ðice July 2017 1 Research Brief 2017‐3 July 2017 Impact Fee Update and 2017 Outlook Pennsylvania imposes an annual impact fee on unconventional (i million for calendar year (CY) 2016 (remitted in April 2017), which was a moderate decline from the prior year. This research brief (1) examines the reasons for that decline, (2) I Table 1: Impact Fee Revenues and Distributions 2013 2014 2015

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Economic_and_Revenue_Update_2021.pdf

proposes changes to public employee pension or retirement plans, cost analyses of approved collective bargaining agreements and special reports and research briefs on various budget and economic topics. Questions regarding this packet can be submitted to contact@ifo.state.pa.us and Software 21,864 24,300 25,000 Data Acquisition and Analysis 2,000 18,000 19,000 Publications and Research Materials 34,520 43,400 45,000 Parking 32,775 33,900 35,000 Other 13,547 8,800 10

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County_Property_Tax_Burden_Aug_2021.pdf

This research brief estimates the total 2019 property tax burden by county utilizing income data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA statewide. Including these relief amounts would modestly reduce county-level tax burdens. Property Tax Burden by County Independent Fiscal Office | Research Brief | August 2021 Independent Fiscal Office Page 2 Property Tax Property Tax County Taxes Burden Rank County Taxes Burden Rank

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Budget Hearings Packet.pdf

include the preparation of monthly reports on the state economy and revenue collections, periodic revenue estimates and special reports and research briefs on various budgetary and economic topics. The enclosure lists recent reports published by the IFO, and all of these Personnel Office Operations & Supplies Salaries Benefits Retirement Employer Taxes Computers, Networks, Servers and Software Data Acquisition and Analysis Professional Publications & Research Materials Parking Other Subtotal (2) Outlook Summary Economic and Consumer Outlook Page The U.S. economy expands moderately in 2017

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Budget Hearings Packet- Web Version.pdf

include the preparation of monthly reports on the state economy and revenue collections, periodic revenue estimates and special reports and research briefs on various budgetary and economic topics. The enclosure lists recent reports published by the IFO, and all of these Personnel Office Operations & Supplies Salaries Benefits Retirement Employer Taxes Computers, Networks, Servers and Software Data Acquisition and Analysis Professional Publications & Research Materials Parking Other Subtotal (2) Outlook Summary Economic and Consumer Outlook Page The U.S. economy expands moderately in 2017

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Releases

the past nine budget cycles. Tags: estimates , performance , revenue Full Report Pennsylvania Electricity Update September 09, 2021 | News Stand & Other The IFO released a research brief that provides a general overview of the Pennsylvania electricity market. Recent EIA data show that Pennsylvania remains the largest taxes to the House Majority Policy Committee. Tags: presentation , property , tax Full Report Property Tax Burden by County August 25, 2021 | Property Tax This research brief uses (1) income data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis and the Internal Revenue Service and (2) property tax

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TaxCredit and PBB Overview- 2019-01-24.pptx

May be part of a larger package. Hard to know marginal impact . ▪ GAT awards are 3 year commitments. Nearly all research finds small impact from jobs tax credit. ▪ Most firms would create jobs regardless. ▪ Research finds that job creation is driven by product demand. ▪ Offsets roughly 1% to 3% of overall new job cost to

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TaxCredit and PBB Overview- 2019-01-24.pdf

be part of a larger package. Hard to know marginal impact.  GAT awards are 3 year commitments. Nearly all research finds small impact from jobs tax credit.  Most firms would create jobs regardless.  Research finds that job creation is driven by product demand.  Offsets roughly 1% to 3% of overall new job cost

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State_Tax_Comparison_2020_11.pdf

taxability or misreporting. For more information on misreporting on the federal income tax return, see “Federal Tax Compliance Research: Tax Gap Estimates for Tax Years 2011-2013” (IRS, September 2019). Tax Comparison Study Page 2 The U.S. Census Bureau compiles th ) and West Virginia (5 th ). As noted, this analysis does not control for the export of taxes. Research finds that existing severance taxes are generally pushed forward into prices and borne by final consumers, most of whom reside in other

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State-Tax-Comparison-2020-01.pdf

taxability or misreporting. For more information on misreporting on the federal income tax return, see “Federal Tax Compliance Research: Tax Gap Estimates for Tax Years 2008-2010” (IRS, April 2016). Tax Comparison Study Page 2 The U.S. Census Bureau compiles 3 rd ) and Wyoming (4 th ). As noted, this analysis does not control for the export of taxes. Research finds that existing severance taxes are generally pushed forward into prices and borne by final consumers, most of whom reside in other

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SR2017-03.pdf

to non-taxability or misreporting. For more information on misreporting on the federal income tax return, see “Federal Tax Compliance Research: Tax Gap Estimates for Tax Years 2008–2010” (IRS, May 2016). Tax Comparison Study 2017 Independent Fiscal Office Page 2 such as North Dakota, Wyoming and West Virginia. As noted, this analysis does not control for the export of taxes. Research finds that most severance taxes are pushed forward into prices and borne by final consumers, most of whom reside in

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Revenue_Estimate_2021_05.pdf

Act” Petrosky-Nadeau and Valetta, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco (May 17, 2021) at https://www.frbsf.org/economic-research/files/wp2021-13.pdf. Economic Outlook | Page 3 ▪ Wage and salary growth turned positive in 2020 Q4 and will expand details of its American Jobs Plan, which includes a proposal to raise the corporate tax rate from 21% to 28%. Researchers from the Joint Committee on Taxation found evidence of significant income and deduction shifting behavior (i.e., acceleration of deductions

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Response-Letter-11-08-2019.pdf

of the aforementioned proposals. Based on data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey (ACS) and previous research by the IFO on school district property taxes, the analysis finds the following: 2  There are 3.4 million assumes that 92.5 percent of eligible homeowners would utilize the proposed tax relief. Data from the ACS and previous research by the IFO suggest that up to 14 percent of homeowners in Pennsylvania do not apply for the homestead exclusion

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Response-Letter-09-19-2019.pdf

S. Census Bureau, SESHD Working Paper #2017-39 (July 2017) and O’Hara, Amy, Adam Bee and Joshua Mitchell, “Preliminary Research for Replacing or Supplementing the Income Question on the American Community Survey with Administrative Records,” U.S. Census Bureau: Social, Economics and Housing Statistics Division, memo to ACS Research Evaluation and Advisory Group (March 2016). September 19, 2019 Page 2  School district property taxes paid: $858 million. 3

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Response-Letter-09-12-2019.pdf

S. Census Bureau, SESHD Working Paper #2017-39 (July 2017) and O’Hara, Amy, Adam Bee and Joshua Mitchell, “Preliminary Research for Replacing or Supplementing the Income Question on the American Community Survey with Administrative Records,” U.S. Census Bureau: Social, Economics and Housing Statistics Division, memo to ACS Research Evaluation and Advisory Group (March 2016). Rebate Number Amount 1 Base ($175) 61,000 $10.7 Supplemental (up to $1

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Response-Letter-09-12-2019-Part-2.pdf

S. Census Bureau, SESHD Working Paper #2017-39 (July 2017) and O’Hara, Amy, Adam Bee and Joshua Mitchell, “Preliminary Research for Replacing or Supplementing the Income Question on the American Community Survey with Administrative Records,” U.S. Census Bureau: Social, Economics and Housing Statistics Division, memo to ACS Research Evaluation and Advisory Group (March 2016). Rebate ($1,500 Supplemental) Number Amount 1 Base ($175) 68,600 $12.0 Supplemental

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Presentation-2019-5-1-PAEL.pdf

as non-tipped workers. No tip credit.  The IFO did not analyze this provision due to lack of existing research. May 1, 2019 3 How Does PA Compare? May 1, 2019 4 2019 2020 2021 California $12.00 $13.00 supply.  For labor market, excess supply = unemployment. Fewer jobs.  Labor market fully competitive: minimum wage = higher prices. Newer Research: Moderate increases have little/no effect.  Hundreds of "natural" state experiments. Median increase ~+10%.  Labor market not fully

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PBB_2021_PSP_REPORT.pdf

procure materials, equipment and services to ensure the department and its per- sonnel operate efficiently and effectively. The Bureau of Research and Development (BRD) maintains and updates the department’s policies and houses numerous department program services, while providing logistic support novative business practices to increase agency efficiency and enhance public service. ▪ Maintain sufficient staffing levels to effectively serve the public; research, evaluate, and procure equipment and technologies. ▪ Uphold agency processes and integrity through IAD investigations and SPR examinations. 15-16 Actual

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PBB_2020_DHS_REPORT_Final_Updated.pdf

for some portion of their higher education budget. See “Performance-Based Budgeting in the States,” NCSL Fiscal Policy Research, Vol. 24, No. 35 (September 2016). Background and Methodology | Page 4 The performance-based budget in this report differs from a traditional 11.3% 12.4% 12.5% 12.1% 11.1% -- Source: USDA, Food and Nutrition Service; USDA Economic Research Service. Calculations by IFO. SNAP Eligibility and Authorize Benefits Notes: CAO is county assistance office. App. is applications. 2 Data from PA

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Official_Revenue_Estimate_Methodology_2021.pdf

Pennsylvania residents appears on the annual federal income tax return. The IRS publishes those data on its website. 1 However, research shows that some income is not reported on federal tax returns due to reporting errors or non-compliance. Therefore, amounts and partnership income (11%), sole proprietorship income (56%), pension income (3%) and social security income (11%). See “Federal Tax Compliance Research: Tax Gap Estimates for Tax Years 2011–2013” (IRS, September 2019). These adjustments are also made by the U.S

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Official-Revenue-Estimate-Methodology-2020-6.pdf

appears on the annual federal income tax return. The IRS publishes those data on its website. 1 However, research shows that some income is not reported on federal tax returns due to reporting errors or non-compliance. Therefore, amounts reported on proprietorship income (56 percent), pension income (3 percent) and social security income (11 percent). See “Federal Tax Compliance Research: Tax Gap Estimates for Tax Years 2011–2013” (IRS, September 2019). These adjustments are also made by the U.S. Bureau of

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Official-Revenue-Estimate-Methodology-2019-06.pdf

appears on the annual federal income tax return. The IRS publishes those data on its website. 1 However, research shows that some income is not reported on federal tax returns due to reporting errors or non-compliance. Therefore, amounts reported on proprietorship income (64 percent), pension income (4 percent) and social security income (19 percent). See “Federal Tax Compliance Research: Tax Gap Estimates for Tax Years 2008–2010” (IRS, May 2016). These adjustments are also made by the U.S. Bureau of

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MTR-2017-08.pdf

Sachs finds that the crisis may be connected to declining prime-age labor force participation, especially for men. 3 Other research finds that nearly one-half of workers not in the labor force due to reasons other than school, retirement or study is reasonably accurate, then the actual cost of the opioid crisis could be considerably higher. In the near-term, researchers believe that the budgetary implications of the crisis could intensify as state and local governments continue to devote more resources

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MER-2015-03.pdf

generation are delaying the purchase of homes, and that outcome may hinder their ability to accumulate future wealth. 1 Other research suggests that economic conditions for renters are becoming less favorable, and many millen‐ nials face an uncertain economic future. Figure Since 2012, rental inflation has surpassed general inflation. The differential is especially nota‐ ble for the first quarter of 2015. Research from the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadel‐ phia finds that rental housing is both less affordable and accessible to Pennsylvanians

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MER-2014-06.pdf

sive changes to state GSP for 1997‐2012 and in‐ cludes various technical changes such as the recog‐ nition of research and development (R&D) as capi‐ tal expenditures and new source data. Overall, BEA revisions reduced GSP growth for Pennsylvania Independent Fiscal Of Ðice is conducting further re‐ search into Pennsylvania GSP and plans to publish Ðindings in a new Research Brief series this year. June 2014 Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis. 1 Percentage points. 2 DE and WV

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June_Revenue_Estimate_2021.pdf

Act” Petrosky-Nadeau and Valetta, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco (May 17, 2021) at https://www.frbsf.org/economic-research/files/wp2021-13.pdf. Economic Outlook | Page 3 ▪ Wage and salary growth turned positive in 2020 Q4 and will expand details of its American Jobs Plan, which includes a proposal to raise the corporate tax rate from 21% to 28%. Researchers from the Joint Committee on Taxation found evidence of significant income and deduction shifting behavior (i.e., acceleration of deduc-

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Impact-Fee-Estimate-2019.pdf

Vertical wells that produce less than 90 Mcf per day are exempt from the fee in any operating year. This research brief uses recent data published by the Department of Environmental Protection to estimate collections for calendar year (CY) 2019, which volume of production, and it does not provide a measure of tax burden relative to natural gas sales. Therefore, this research brief computes an annual average effective tax rate (ETR) for all wells in operation during the year. 4 This computation

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Electricity_Update_Sep_2021.pdf

The Independent Fiscal Office (IFO) publishes this research brief to provide a general overview of the Pennsylvania electricity market. According to data from the U.S. Energy Information amounts for direct use and line losses, which are not yet available for 2020. Pennsylvania Electricity Update Independent Fiscal Office | Research Brief | September 2021 Independent Fiscal Office Page 2 in 2016, and the differential widened through 2021. The average residential price

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Demographics_Outlook_2020.pdf

rates may also be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and economic recession. According to a 2011 Pew Research study, birth rates are strongly correlated to the economy. When the economy enters a recession, birth rates tend to decline. The Pew rates for these age groups began to fall. 3 Livingston, Gretchen. “In a Down Economy, Fewer Births.” Pew Research Center. October 12, 2011. https://www.pew- socialtrends.org/2011/10/12/in-a-down-economy-fewer-births/. Demographic Trends by Age

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2006_surviving_spouse_healthcare_study.pdf

of providing the proposed benefit extension. COMMISSION RECOMMENDATIONS -32- Issue – Potential Legal Obstacles During the course of the Commission’s research for this report, it became apparent that significant legal hurdles may exist to providing subsidized healthcare coverage to the spouses Survivor-spouse must provide adequate information regarding deceased retiree and former REHP coverage. 3. SERS - Researches records to determine if spouse is eligible for Survivor Spouse election. 4. SERS - When eligible SERS prepares a Survivor-Spouse information letter and election form

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2002_dbdc_report.pdf

seen significant growth, although the DB approach continues to predominate in public sector retirement systems. In the course of its research, the Commission identified a total of 21 state-level public employee pension plans in 16 states that are DC or reduced or partial benefit and who receive no benefit.” – House Resolution No. 266 Defined Contribution Plan Experience The Employee Benefit Research Institute (EBRI) has collected and published data on many private sector 401(k) plans over a period of years. The

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Witgert Nov 15, 2012.pdf

coverage-in-states Big Decision #2: Health Insurance Exchanges 12 National Conference of State Legislatures http://www.ncsl.org/issues- research/health/state-actions- to-implement-the-health- benefit-exch.aspx Exchange Primer • Health insurance marketplace • Subsidies for individuals 133% - 400%

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Smetters_Presentation_Full.pdf

753 Changes to the treatment of investment -86 -180 -152 Modification to net operating loss deductions 201 145 169 Amortize research & experimentation 120 51 88 Repeal of Domestic Production Deduction 98 100 300 Reforms to certain business tax expenditures 149 148

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Select Committee Oct 1 2012 FINAL.pdf

imposed against 2010 data. 1.Oct.2012 Analysis of HB 1776 and SB 1400 of 2012 – Slide 21 Homeowners  Research suggests an average property tax capitalization rate of roughly one-third.  Median home price 2014 $180,000  Median

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Revenue_Estimate_2021_05_Presentation.pdf

federal transfers ▪ Up +10.4% (adjusted for shifts/transfers) from FY 19-20 ▪ Up +11.7% from FY 18-19 ▪ Research: most EIP monies are spent/used within 3 months ▪ Forecast: one more very strong month for June Motor vehicle sales

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Response-Letter-08-16-2019.pdf

figures shown in the table assume that 95 percent of eligible homeowners would utilize the proposed tax relief. 1 Previous research by the IFO suggests that the full population eligible for property tax relief does not typically apply for relief. For

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Presentation-2018-10-Performance-Based-Budget-Board.pdf

corrections, parole supervision and victim services  PCCD  6 activities focusing on victim services, juvenile justice system, delinquency prevention, research and strategic policy development and school safety  JCJC  3 activities focusing on support for juvenile court judges and

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PBB_Board_Hearing_Apr_26_2021.pdf

offset roughly 42% of project cost (avg. cost = $60,400) ▪ Must be maintained for a predetermined lifespan (5-10 years) ▪ Research concludes incentives combined with regulation are effective ▪ 55% credits sold | farmers lack necessary tax liability ▪ Credits awarded for previously completed

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PBB_2021_PennDOT_REPORT.pdf

consultants and are primarily constructed by contrac- tors through a low-bid process. Projects contain pre-construction phases such as research, planning and programming, environmental activities, design, right-of-way, railroad grade crossing and utility services, contract management and consultant services

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PBB_2020_PEMA_REPORT.pdf

for some portion of their higher education budget. See “Performance-Based Budgeting in the States,” NCSL Fiscal Policy Research, Vol. 24, No. 35 (September 2016). Background and Methodology | Page 2 The performance-based budget in this report differs from a traditional

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PBB_2020_DOS_REPORT.pdf

for some portion of their higher education budget. See “Performance-Based Budgeting in the States,” NCSL Fiscal Policy Research, Vol. 24, No. 35 (September 2016). Background and Methodology | Page 2 The performance-based budget in this report differs from a traditional

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PBB_2020_DEP_Report.pdf

for some portion of their higher education budget. See “Performance-Based Budgeting in the States,” NCSL Fiscal Policy Research, Vol. 24, No. 35 (September 2016). Background and Methodology | Page 2 The performance-based budget in this report differs from a traditional

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PBB_2019_DOBS_Report.pdf

Outcomes This activity provides the leadership, support and oversight necessary for effective and efficient operations of DOBS. Established research finds higher employee satisfaction, and lower turnover, if leadership effec- tively communicates the agency’s mission and vision, and empowers employees to

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PBB_2019_DGS_Report.pdf

reflected in relatively low levels of human resource and overtime costs, as well as staff turnover rates. Established research finds higher employee satisfaction, and lower turnover, if leadership effectively communicates the agency’s mission and vision, and empowers employees to have

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PBB-Tax-Credits-Schedule-2019-05.pdf

Offices Environmental Hearing Board Conservation and Natural Resources Year Tax Credits 1 Film Production New Jobs Historic Preservation Incentive 2 Research and Development Keystone Innovation Zones Mobile Telecom and Broadband Organ and Bone Marrow 3 Neighborhood Assistance Resource Enhancement and Protections

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PBB-Board-Hearing-Agenda-January 2019-Revised.pdf

John Wetzel, Secretary, Department of Corrections Christopher Oppman, Deputy Secretary of Administration, DOC Bret Bucklen, Ph.D, Director of Planning, Research & Statistics, DOC Nicolette Bell, Special Assistant to the Secretary, DOC Leo Dunn, Chairman, Pennsylvania Board of Probation and Parole 11

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PBB Board Hearing Agenda- January 2019.pdf

John Wetzel, Secretary, Department of Corrections Christopher Oppman, Deputy Secretary of Administration, DOC Bret Bucklen, Ph.D, Director of Planning, Research & Statistics, DOC Nicolette Bell, Special Assistant to the Secretary, DOC Leo Dunn, Chairman, Pennsylvania Board of Probation and Parole 11

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novak ppt.pdf

F EDERAL R ESERVE B ANK OF P HILADELPHIA Pennsylvania Economic Outlook Independent Fiscal Office January 18, 2012 Jason Novak Research and Policy Support Manager Half Empty or Half Full? • Increased economic activity equals tax revenue increases if and only if

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MTR-2017-03.pdf

share of student loans increased from 11% to 14% over that same period. Credit card debt was unchanged at 7%. Research by the FRBNY suggests that the changing composition of debt is influenced by (1) the aging population and associated change

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MTR-2016-12.pdf

and subject to revision. Figures are annualized rates. Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis. 1 Pennsylvania State Data Center, “Research Brief: 2016 National and State Population Estimates Released,” December 21, 2016. United States Pennsylvania Sep-16 Oct-16 Nov-16

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Monthly_Economic_Update_June_2020.pdf

of Pittsburgh released a tool that estimates the potential revenue loss to Pennsylvania municipalities due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Researchers estimate that revenue losses range from $833 million to $3.4 billion, or a 4% to 16% reduction in total

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Mid_Year_FY16-17_Presentation.pdf

as food and clothing.  Difficult for businesses to pass on costs. Hits profits. Weak profits impact business purchases.  Research suggests roughly 1/3 of SUT from business. PA consumers reluctant to spend.  Modest wage gains.  PA mortgage

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MER-2015-01.pdf

improves. However, it is not clear how quickly the savings at the gas pump translate into additional consumer spending. Many researchers believe that consumers will spend roughly one quarter to one half of these savings, and will use the residual sav-

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MER-2014-12.pdf

that they will maintain current levels of oil production in an effort to preserve their share of the mar‐ ket. Research has shown that short term changes in the price of gasoline have little impact on the volume of gasoline con‐

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jackson ppt.pdf

natural gas into vehicle-fuel stream. • These jobs won’t all necessarily be located in Pennsylvania. • State’s educational and research capabilities should help to attract employers. • Construction jobs will get a boost from (eventual) housing recovery. • Professional services, health-care

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ITEP-Presentation-11-14-2019.pdf

Sustainable Economic Development Introduction to ITEP The Institute on Taxation and Economic Policy (ITEP) is a non-profit, non-partisan research organization that works on federal, state, and local tax policy issues. ITEP's mission is to ensure that elected officials

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IFO_Testimony_Feb2018.pdf

The IFO has not included this impact in revenue projections because these effects take time to fully manifest themselves. Most researchers believe that dynamic effects will offset one-eighth to one-quarter of the projected reduction in tax revenues. That concludes

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IFO_Analyst_Opening.pdf

to state revenues, expenditures and the economy; 2) applies economic and statistical principles, practices and techniques to design and complete research on fiscal and economic issues; 3) prepares regular reports on the economy and state revenues; and 4) drafts text and

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IFO testimony CR Hearing Jan 29 2020.pdf

IFO surveyed reports, fiscal notes and other documents from states that enacted combined reporting in the past decade. Overall, that research suggested a consensus that combined reporting could increase revenues from 5 to 15 percent. An outlier state was Rhode Island

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HTAE_2019_05_15.pdf

as non-tipped workers. No tip credit.  The IFO did not analyze this provision due to lack of existing research. May 15, 2019 6 How Does PA Compare? May 15, 2019 7 2019 2020 2021 California $12.00 $13.00

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House_Appropriation_Response_Letter_3_17_2021.pdf

Washington both reported an increase in the number of drug-related DUIs following the legalization of recreational marijuana. While most researchers note an increase in traffic-related fatalities after recreational marijuana legalization, results are mixed on whether increased marijuana consumption is

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House Appropriation Response Letter 2-28-2020.pdf

attached table. Representative Brown requested property tax burden by county. This project has been undertaken by the IFO as a Research Brief and will be released as a stand-alone report later this spring. As indicated during the IFO’s budget

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HAC testimony Feb 2019.pdf

more comprehensive reports in future years. For these first year reports, the IFO sought to accomplish the following goals:  Research models used in other states that currently employ PBB systems such as Washington, New Mexico, Nevada and Kansas.  Establish

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Five_Year_Outlook_2020.pdf

based on the FY 2020-21 percentage allocations of receipts for the Tobacco Use, Prevention and Cessation and the Health Research line items. These allocations are used for all years of the forecast. Fiscal Year 19-20 20-21 21-22

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Five_Year_Outlook_2019.pdf

the FY 2019-20 percentage allocations of receipts for the Tobacco Use, Prevention and Cessation and the Health Research line items. These allocations are used for all years of the forecast.  The Department of Human Services appropriations for MA – Workers

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Five_Year_Outlook_2017_Presentation.pdf

accountable and fiscally sound.  Work with states to develop and implement best practices. Previous Experience and Education  Provided research and analysis on local and state public policy topics for the American Chamber of Commerce Executives.  Planned and coordinated

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Econ Summit Presentation Feb 28 2017.pdf

and Lotto -2.9% -9.4% 9.3% -7.6% Note: millions of dollars. Source: IFO forecast from Gaming Trends Research Brief, February 2017. Slots and table games revenues have not been reduced for $45.3 million in CY 2016 refunds

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ACN_SB1_A01354_A01558_2017_06_03a.pdf

their lifetime. Data from a recent edition of the Annuity Shopper Buyer’s Guide (April 2017), as well as other research, suggest an approximate range of 10-20 percent premium to pur- chase a lifetime annuity for an individual age 65

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ACN_SB1071_A10803_text.pdf

and requests for information concerning the system or the plan from the press, Commonwealth officials, State employees, the general public, research organizations, and officials and organizations from other states, and provide information as authorized by the board. 2016/90MSP/SB1071A10803 - 162

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2020 PBB Agenda.pdf

Independent Fiscal Office Brenda Warburton, Deputy Director, Independent Fiscal Office 9:45 am – 11:00 am Review of Tax Credits (Research & Development, Keystone Innovation Zones, Mobile Telecom & Broadband, Organ & Bone Marrow) Amy Gill, Deputy Secretary of Tax Policy, Department of Revenue

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2013-08 Monthly Economic Summary.pdf

Defini- tional changes include the accrual treatment of pension plans and the capitalization of certain in- tellectual property such as research and develop- ment, entertainment, literary and artistic originals. Capitalization implies that costs are deducted over many years, not immediately in

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2013-07 Monthly Economic Summary.pdf

from the American Gaming Association’s (AGA) State of the States reports 2009-2013. http:// www.americangaming.org/industry-resources/research/state-states. Figures are for the calendar year as reported by AGA. 2 Pennsylvania Gaming Control Board, adjusted for calendar

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2013-04 Monthly Economic Report.pdf

the fourth quarter of 2012 to the fourth quarter of 2013. These changes likely affect consumers’ saving or spending decisions. Research suggests that for each $1 change in stock market wealth, consump- tion rises or falls about 2.5 cents. Changes

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2013-01 Monthly Economic Report.pdf

by roughly $5 billion. (See table.) The exact share of the $5 billion that would be spent is uncertain, and research suggests that much of it might be saved or used to pay off debt. Assuming that 50 percent ($2.5

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2004_srpvffinal.pdf

to study volunteer firefighter retirement plans operating in other states that were enabled by state law. During the course of research, the Commission staff identified a total of 26 states in which volunteer firefighter retirement benefit plans or “service award programs

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2002_drop_report.pdf

credited at all. Final distribution of the account balance also varies. - 2 - Most Common Design Features The Commission staff conducted research to ascertain common design features and operational characteristics of public sector DROP programs currently in operation throughout the country. The

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